Enfermedad de Parkinson: fisiopatología, diagnóstico y tratamiento

  • Daniel S Marín Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira
  • Hans Carmona Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira
  • Melissa Ibarra Grupo de Investigación “Applied Neuroscience”, Neurocentro. Risaralda, Colombia
  • Manuela Gámez Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira

Resumen

La enfermedad de Parkinson es la segunda causa de enfermedad neurodegenerativa crónica progresiva, tiene una alta prevalencia e incidencia, genera un alto impacto en la calidad de vida de los pacientes e importantes costos en su atención. La enfermedad de Parkinson se desarrolla por la degeneración de las neuronas dopaminérgicas en la sustancia nigra pars compacta, lo que se manifiesta en la aparición de síntomas motores como la bradicinesia, temblor de reposo, rigidez e inestabilidad postural; así como también de síntomas no motores como alteraciones gastrointestinales, del sueño, autonómicas, cognitivas, entre otras, que reflejan el compromiso de diferentes vías no dopaminérgicas. El diagnóstico se apoya en sus manifestaciones clínicas más características y excluye otras causas de parkinsonismo. El tratamiento farmacológico busca controlar los síntomas motores y no motores, los cuales empeoran por la historia natural de la enfermedad o se acompañan de complicaciones debidas a la terapia, haciendo necesarias otras intervenciones como la estimulación cerebral profunda.

Palabras clave: Enfermedad de Parkinson, trastornos del movimiento, temblor, levodopa, estimulación cerebral profunda

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Publicado
2018-02-15
Sección
Revisión de Tema