Tendencias metodológicas en la evaluación del grado de contaminación y de riesgos por metales pesados presentes en sedimentos viales urbanos

  • Angélica Goya-Heredia Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas
  • Carlos Alfonso Zafra-Mejía Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4061-4897
  • Juan Pablo Rodríguez-Miranda Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3761-8221

Resumen

El objetivo principal de este artículo es analizar las tendencias a nivel mundial en el uso de métodos para evaluar la contaminación por metales pesados (MP) asociados con el sedimento vial (SV) urbano. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de literatura entre los años 1995-2018. Se empleó un índice de frecuencia de citación con el fin de establecer un orden de importancia para las categorías detectadas. Los resultados muestran el siguiente orden de importancia para las categorías detectadas: enriquecimiento metálico (87,0%) > riesgo sobre la salud (55,8%) > riesgo ambiental (35,1%). Los métodos de preferencia mundial para cada una de las categorías son el índice de geo-acumulación (55,8%), cociente de riesgo no cancerígeno (50,6%) e índice de riesgo ecológico (31,2%), respectivamente. Estas preferencias están posiblemente condicionadas por la existencia local de información de concentraciones de fondo de MP, dosis diarias de inhalación de partículas vinculadas a SV, factores de toxicidad por ingesta/contacto dérmico con MP, y factores de emisión de partículas de SV. Los MP de mayor relevancia son Pb (98,0%), Cu (94%) y Zn (90%). No obstante, también se destacan Cr-Cd-As por su elevado riesgo ecológico y cancerígeno.

Palabras clave: enriquecimiento metálico, metales pesados, riesgo ecológico, salud pública, sedimentos viales

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Publicado
2020-07-30