Polímeros para aplicación en yacimientos de alta temperatura y alta salinidad – revisión crítica de propiedades y aspectos a considerar para selección en laboratorio

  • Yani Carolina Araujo SGS North America, The Woodlands, TX
  • Mariela Araujo O&G Consultant, Houston, TX

Resumen

Una cantidad significativa de petróleo reside en yacimientos profundos caracterizados por estar asociados a temperaturas y salinidades relativamente altas. Para estos yacimientos la mayoría de los químicos disponibles para EOR tienen una aplicabilidad limitada. Aun cuando recientemente se han reportado esfuerzos en el desarrollo de polímeros para altas temperaturas, aún no se tiene un entendimiento claro de lo que funcionaría mejor en ambientes severos, con alta salinidad. Adicionalmente, la comunidad petrolera está evaluando posibles aplicaciones de tecnologías químicas de EOR en activos costa afuera donde se observan con frecuencia condiciones similares. Las aplicaciones en campo que involucran el uso de polímeros en yacimientos con ambientes hostiles han demostrado un éxito limitado en el mejoramiento de la recuperación de petróleo. Un análisis minucioso revela que la selección de los fluidos se realizó bajo condiciones de laboratorio “modelo”, utilizando muestras de rocas y fluidos diferentes a los encontrados en el yacimiento. Estos hechos han motivado el trabajo de investigación y desarrollo para comprender el tipo de polímeros que pudieran ser adecuados para uso en reservorios de alta temperatura, que presentan fluidos de alta salinidad, y para determinar el tipo de pruebas a utilizar para evaluar su desempeño en una aplicación de campo que podrían utilizarse como criterios de selección de laboratorio. En este trabajo se ofrece una revisión crítica de los polímeros disponibles para aplicación en yacimientos de alta temperatura y alta salinidad, y se reporta un resumen de buenas prácticas para su selección en el laboratorio siguiendo un procedimiento recomendado.

Palabras clave: Yacimientos Hostiles, Inyección de Polímeros, Selección en el Laboratorio, Recuperación Mejorada de Crudo (EOR), Yacimientos de Alta Temperatura y Salinidad.

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Publicado
2018-12-18