El análisis del error humano en la manufactura: un elemento clave para mejorar la calidad de la producción

Resumen

A pesar del creciente nivel de automatización industrial, el ensamblaje manual continúa desempeñando un rol fundamental en diversos sectores de la manufactura. Sin embargo, las operaciones de tipo manual son susceptibles de errores humanos que ocasionan problemas de calidad y pérdidas económicas. El presente artículo se propone mostrar algunos métodos que permiten identificar diferentes tipos de errores y evaluar la influencia de factores que afectan el desempeño del trabajador. Se muestran, en particular, los métodos SHERPA y HEART. Igualmente se discute sobre la importancia de considerar la complejidad del ensamblaje por su negativo impacto en la carga cognitiva del trabajador lo que puede aumentar la probabilidad de error. En el artículo se emplean conceptos provenientes de la literatura especializada y se realiza una articulación de varias ramas del conocimiento tales como la ergonomía, la ingeniería industrial y la fiabilidad de sistema.

Palabras clave: fiabilidad humana, sistema de ensamblaje, complejidad, ergonomía, mejora continua, carga cognitiva

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Publicado
2020-07-29