Revisión bibliográfica sobre el estudio de pérdidas en la construcción bajo principios Lean

Resumen

En general el concepto de pérdidas en la construcción se define como aquellas actividades que consumen recursos y no agregan valor “non value-adding activities” y afectan la productividad; a partir de esta premisa, la implementación de la filosofía Lean Construction pretende identificar y eliminar las pérdidas. Este estudio a través de una revisión sistemática de la literatura busca identificar los estudios que describan, analicen y clasifiquen las pérdidas en la construcción, así como los esfuerzos por cuantificarlas y aplicar herramientas orientadas a su mitigación o eliminación para la disminución de la variabilidad y el aumento de la productividad en el sector de la construcción. Para la revisión bibliográfica se determinó un intervalo de 20 años del cual se obtuvo un total de 74 publicaciones para las cuales se realizó el análisis general considerando distribución geográfica, artículos por año, por autor, por revista y método de investigación; para el análisis sobre el estudio del concepto y la clasificación de las pérdidas se determinó un intervalo de 10 años con un total de 57 publicaciones. Entre los resultados se destaca el año 2019, el continente americano y el Lean Construction Journal con el mayor número de publicaciones. Al momento de describir el concepto de pérdidas los autores más citados son Glenn Ballard y Lauri Koskela y en cuanto a la clasificación de pérdidas, en su mayoría, se refieren a la clasificación realizada por Taichii Ohno en 1988; asimismo, la herramienta de la filosofía Lean Construction más utilizada para la disminución o eliminación de pérdidas es el mapa de flujo de valor, conocido por sus siglas en inglés VSM (value stream mapping).

Palabras clave: atrasos, demoras, esperas, flujo de trabajo, Lean Construction, movimientos, pérdidas, productividad, reprocesos, sobreprocesos, sobreproducción, valor

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Publicado
2021-07-09