Propuesta de clasificación y nomenclatura geológica de suelos: tanto genética-descriptiva como composicional-mineralógica

Resumen

Existen numerosos sistemas con clasificación detallada de los suelos, la mayoría de ellos están basados en una variedad de criterios complejos, tales como el tipo de material y propiedades como la cantidad de material orgánico, la presencia de capas de arcilla, y la presencia de horizontes ricos en hierro de oxidación o de reducción, como también de sus características deposicionales, su geomorfología y los procesos de formación de los depósitos. Muchos de estos han sido desarrollados para ser usados en los campos de la agronomía y de la geotecnia. Este escrito se enfoca en la clasificación de los suelos mediante la determinación de sus materiales, su origen y los procesos geológicos que le dan su forma, aceptando las siguientes premisas: (1) el suelo viene inicialmente del intemperismo de un sustrato parental que puede ser o un depósito sedimentario (por ejemplo, aluvial o fluvial) o algún tipo de roca (ígnea, metamórfica o sedimentaria), (2) la estructura del sustrato parental está integrada por facies secuenciales originales (por ejemplo, la foliación, los cúmulos ígneos o la intercalación de capas sedimentarias), (3) el intemperismo físico y químico y los procesos de actividad y productividad biogénica que ocurren en el suelo modifican tanto la estructura original como los componentes del sustrato parental, resultando en la formación de nuevos materiales, la conservación de otros, y la sobreimposición de las facies secuenciales del suelo (horizontes A, B y C) desarrolladas sobre la secuencia de facies originales del sustrato parental, adicionalmente (4) algunos materiales se pierden del sistema y otros pueden ser incorporados dentro de él. Finalmente, se propone una clasificación estrictamente composicional-mineralógica de suelos, la cual corresponde esencialmente a los principales grupos de minerales: silicatos, carbonatos, fosfatos, óxidos e hidróxidos, sulfatos, materia orgánica, nitratos, sulfuros, boratos, elementos nativos y sales, nombrados en sedimentología bajo el término de monomateriales, adicionando los polimateriales o fragmentos de roca (RF). Esta clasificación ofrece una ventaja cuando se examinan los materiales que no son genéticamente relacionados con el sustrato parental, haciendo cada perfil de suelo único, destacando el papel que juega el material parental en este proceso. Con esta clasificación se pretende complementar, pero no reemplazar ninguna clasificación de suelos ya existente.

 

Palabras clave: Suelo, clasificación, materiales del suelo, clasificación geológica, clasificación genética, clasificación composicional

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Publicado
2020-01-22
Sección
Artículos científicos