Síndrome Respiratorio de Medio Oriente causado por un coronavirus y el Hajj: ¿potencial para una emergencia internacional?

  • Andrés Moreira-Soto Universidad de Costa Rica
  • Adriana Troyo Universidad de Costa Rica
  • Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar Universidad de Costa Rica

Resumen

La epidemiología de enfermedades infecciosas en eventos de concentración masiva requiere de un amplio planeamiento y control por parte de los centros de salud de cada país involucrado. El Síndrome Respiratorio de Medio Oriente causado por un coronavirus es causado por un nuevo virus identificado en Medio Oriente en el 2012. Hasta octubre del 2013 se cuentan con 138 casos confirmados por laboratorio con 60 muertes. Cada año, alrededor de dos millones de peregrinos se dirigen hacia La Meca en Arabia Saudita durante el Hajj, una de las concentraciones religiosas masivas más importantes del mundo. Este año se presenta una alerta particular por el Hajj dado que el coronavirus podría ser potencialmente diseminado hacia otros países debido a la movilización de personas que implica este acontecimiento. América posee 4,6 millones de residentes musulmanes, por lo que un adecuado seguimiento de las personas que viajaron a Medio Oriente es imperativo para evitar la diseminación de este coronavirus hacia el continente. La siguiente revisión tiene como objetivo actualizar al lector sobre el tema, brindando información general de los coronavirus, especialmente sobre el que causa el Síndrome Respiratorio de Medio Oriente, la historia en el surgimiento de la enfermedad y sus manifestaciones clínicas; se propone además una serie de recomendaciones generales para las autoridades de salud de cada país para evitar así una epidemia. (MED. UIS. 2013;27(1):25-33)

Palabras clave: Coronavirus, Enfermedades transmisibles emergentes, Islamismo, Salud pública, Virus

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Biografía del autor

Andrés Moreira-Soto, Universidad de Costa Rica

Estudiante de tercer año de Maestría en Microbiología con énfasis en Virología. Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales. Facultad de Microbiología. Universidad de Costa Rica. San José. Costa Rica.

Adriana Troyo, Universidad de Costa Rica

Microbióloga. Ph.D en Epidemiología y geografía de enfermedades infecciosas. Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales. Facultad de Microbiología. Universidad de Costa Rica. San José. Costa Rica.

Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar, Universidad de Costa Rica

Microbióloga. Ph.D en Virología. Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales. Facultad de Microbiología. Universidad de Costa Rica. San José. Costa Rica.

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Publicado
2014-04-29
Sección
Artículo de Revisión