Consideraciones anestésicas para el abordaje del paciente quirúrgico con COVID-19
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Palabras clave

Anesthesia
COVID-19
Coronavirus Infections
Nursing Care
surgery
Perioperative Nursing

Cómo citar

Álvarez-Guevara, J. F., Medina-Garzón, M., & Castellanos-López, J. I. (2022). Consideraciones anestésicas para el abordaje del paciente quirúrgico con COVID-19. Salud UIS, 54. https://doi.org/10.18273/saluduis.54.e:22018

Resumen

Introducción: la situación actual causada por el COVID-19 demanda la implementación de nuevas técnicas en el manejo anestésico y los riesgos preexistentes en los servicios quirúrgicos. Objetivo: identificar las consideraciones
anestésicas para pacientes con COVID-19 con el fin de sugerir intervenciones en el área quirúrgica. Metodología: revisión integrativa de alcance descriptivo en conjunto con el cumplimiento de los pasos metodológicos de Whittemore-Knafl y los parámetros PRISMA. Se realizó la búsqueda en las bases de datos: PubMed, BVS, Coronavirus Research Database, SCOPUS, Elsevier y SAGE. Se obtuvieron 953 artículos que, junto a un análisis crítico por CASPe, cumplieron los criterios establecidos de inclusión y exclusión. Resultados: se seleccionaron 27
artículos clasificados en: criterios de selección de técnica anestésica; anestesia general y el uso de medicamentos específicos para el manejo anestésico que disminuyan la tos y prevengan la liberación de aerosoles; manejo de la vía aérea encaminada a evitar intubaciones fallidas; anestesia regional y consideraciones de enfermería sobre la preparación de elementos y dispositivos de manera previa al ingreso del paciente al quirófano; identificación y monitorización de pacientes sintomáticos y asintomáticos durante el proceso perioperatorio. Conclusión: con
respecto a la técnica anestésica, es importante priorizar el uso, en cuanto sea posible, de la anestesia regional guiada con ultrasonido. En caso de requerirse la anestesia general, es recomendable mantener las precauciones para prevenir el contagio con el virus. Para enfermería, es destacable el rol en la preparación de un entorno quirúrgico seguro, del conocimiento sobre la técnica anestésica empleada y los cuidados individualizados según las necesidades requeridas.

https://doi.org/10.18273/saluduis.54.e:22018
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Derechos de autor 2022 Juan Felipe Álvarez-Guevara, Mauricio Medina-Garzón, Jorge Iván Castellanos-López

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