Decúbito prono en el Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria Aguda, de la fisiología a la práctica clínica

  • Ruben Dario Rodriguez-Buenahora Fundación Universitaria Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
  • Sergio Alexander Ordoñez-Sánchez Fundación Universitaria Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
  • Jimmy Gómez-Olaya Fundación Universitaria Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
  • Marly Esperanza Camargo-Lozada Fundación Universitaria Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia

Resumen

El síndrome de diicultad respiratoria aguda incluye una compleja serie de acontecimientos que conducen a daño alveolar, edema pulmonar por aumento de la permeabilidad vascular e insuiciencia respiratoria; muchos procesos están relacionados con su aparición, la característica común es la activación de los neutróilos en la circulación pulmonar o sistémica. Las manifestaciones clínicas aparecen generalmente 6 a 72 horas posterior al inicio del evento y empeoran rápidamente. El tratamiento se basa en un manejo interdisciplinario por parte del personal de la unidad de cuidados intensivos, se debe realizar un reconocimiento precoz de los pacientes descartando otras causas de hipoxemia, identiicar y tratar la causa subyacente, y emplear la ventilación mecánica para asegurar correcta oxigenación, intentando siempre proteger los pulmones de la lesión pulmonar inducida por la técnica. La ventilación en decúbito prono favorece el aumento de la oxigenación en pacientes con este síndrome, los mecanismos que producen este incremento son probablemente múltiples e interdependientes y no han sido dilucidados en su totalidad. Es un procedimiento de bajo costo, recomendado implementar en pacientes categoría grave, y preferentemente en etapa tempana de la enfermedad, aunque es necesario realizar estudios futuros que puedan establecer el verdadero impacto en la mortalidad para evaluar su uso sistemático en todos los pacientes con Síndrome de Diicultad Respiratoria Aguda. MÉD.UIS. 2016;29(2):81-101.

Palabras clave: Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto. Posición Prona. Postura. Posicionamiento del Paciente. Ventilación Pulmonar. Lesión Pulmonar Aguda. Terapia por Inhalación de Oxígeno.

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Biografía del autor

Ruben Dario Rodriguez-Buenahora, Fundación Universitaria Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
Médico General. Médico unidad de cuidados intensivos. Clínica la Merced. Bucaramanga. Santander. Colombia
Sergio Alexander Ordoñez-Sánchez, Fundación Universitaria Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
Médico y Cirujano. Residente I año de Anestesiología y Reanimación. Fundación Universitaria Ciencias de la Salud. Bogotá. Cundinamarca. Colombia.
Jimmy Gómez-Olaya, Fundación Universitaria Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
Médico y Cirujano. Médico unidad de cuidados intensivos. Clínica la Merced. Bucaramanga. Santander. Colombia.
Marly Esperanza Camargo-Lozada, Fundación Universitaria Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
Médico General. Médico unidad de cuidados intensivos. Clínica La Merced. Bucaramanga. Santander. Colombia.

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Publicado
2016-08-31
Cómo citar
RODRIGUEZ-BUENAHORA, Ruben Dario et al. Decúbito prono en el Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria Aguda, de la fisiología a la práctica clínica. REVISTA MÉDICAS UIS, [S.l.], v. 29, n. 2, p. 81-101, ago. 2016. ISSN 1794-5240. Disponible en: <http://revistas.uis.edu.co/index.php/revistamedicasuis/article/view/5757>. Fecha de acceso: 22 nov. 2017 doi: https://doi.org/10.18273/revmed.v29n2-2016008.
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