Enfoques del ejercicio terapéutico sobre la espasticidad en miembro inferior post-Enfermedad Cerebro Vascular: revisión sistemática

  • Odair Bacca
  • María Solangel Patiño
  • Esperanza Herrera
  • José Barela

Resumen

Introducción: En la enfermedad cerebro vascular uno de los principales problemas es la espasticidad, que compromete el control postural, la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida. Para lograr la mayor recuperación funcional, se han utilizado los enfoques neuromusculares del ejercicio terapéutico (Ej: Rood, Bobath, Brunnstrom y la Facilitación Neuromuscular Propioceptiva), sin embargo, existe controversia sobre la eficacia de estas intervenciones.  Objetivo: Realizar un análisis crítico de la evidencia científica disponible sobre el efecto de los enfoques tradicionales en la espasticidad de los miembros inferiores en personas post-Enfermedad Cerebro Vascular. Métodos: Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos controlados de las bases de datos PUBMED, MEDLINE, PEDro, CINAHL, SCIENCEDIRECT y SCOPUS. La calidad metodológica de los artículos incluidos se evaluó por medio de la escala PeDro. Resultados: Once estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión, obteniendo una calidad metodológica de intermedia a alta. Entre las limitaciones de los estudios revisados se destacan principalmente la ausencia del cálculo del tamaño de muestra, de enmascaramiento de los evaluadores, pérdida de participantes, muestras heterogéneas, carencia de protocolos estandarizados y diversidad de variables evaluadas. Conclusión: El tratamiento fisioterapéutico para disminuir la espasticidad puede ser efectivo aplicado entre tres y cinco días por semana, durante 40 minutos. Sin embargo, estos resultados están soportados en estudios con limitaciones metodológicas y dificultades en su comparación. Por ello, se requieren nuevos estudios para evaluar la eficacia de dichos enfoques, con el fin implementar intervenciones fisioterapéuticas basadas en la mejor evidencia, que contribuyan en una mejor calidad de vida de esta población

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Publicado
2017-06-08
Cómo citar
BACCA, Odair et al. Enfoques del ejercicio terapéutico sobre la espasticidad en miembro inferior post-Enfermedad Cerebro Vascular: revisión sistemática. REVISTA SALUD UIS, [S.l.], v. 49, n. 2, p. 364-378, jun. 2017. ISSN 2145-8464. Disponible en: <http://revistas.uis.edu.co/index.php/revistasaluduis/article/view/6363>. Fecha de acceso: 22 oct. 2017 doi: https://doi.org/10.18273/revsal.v49n2-2017009.
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Artículo de Revisión