Mecanismos moleculares emergentes y células madre leucémicas en la quimiorresistencia de tumores hematológicos

  • Luz Aida Rey-Caro Universidad Industrial de Santander
  • Paula Pinzón Fundación Universitaria Ciencias de la Salud. Bogotá
  • Nataly Cruz-Rodríguez Universidad Industrial de Santander

Resumen

Las leucemias agudas son trastornos clonales originados a partir de células hematopoyéticas primitivas multipotenciales que se caracterizan por la proliferación, diferenciación y maduración aberrante de células progenitoras leucémicas como resultado de varios eventos genéticos y epigenéticos. Aunque en la actualidad se han implementado diferentes esquemas de quimioterapia para mejorar el pronóstico de los pacientes, las leucemias agudas representan una malignidad hematológica con pobre desenlace clínico y bajas tasas de supervivencia en pacientes pediátricos y adultos Colombianos.  Uno de los principales obstáculos para el tratamiento exitoso del cáncer es el desarrollo de resistencia a los medicamentos durante la quimioterapia y la enfermedad recurrente. En el estudio de la biología de las células tumorales, se reconoce que los diversos cambios oncogénicos y la evolución clonal que sufren las células tumorales, son cambios biológicos que les confieren mecanismos de resistencia a la quimioterapia convencional, que a su vez se traducen en un incremento en las tasas de mortalidad y/o el aumento de recaídas en los pacientes que padecen esta enfermedad. Por lo tanto, el estudio de los mecanismos empleados por las células leucémicas para escapar del efecto citotóxico del tratamiento empleado para combatir la enfermedad es un objetivo primordial de la investigación en cáncer. En este contexto, el objetivo del presente artículo es hacer una revisión detallada de los avances más recientes en la comprensión de los mecanismos involucrados en la resistencia tumoral en leucemias, haciendo especial énfasis en el papel que desempeñan las células madre leucémicas y el metabolismo tumoral en la quimiorresistencia de este grupo de enfermedades. El conocimiento de los mecanismos de resistencia tumoral, así como el entendimiento detallado de las interacciones entre las células normales y leucémicas en el microambiente de la médula ósea, son prometedores blancos terapéuticos de las leucemias agudas. 

Palabras clave: Leucemia, quimiorresistencia, células madre, metabolismo tumoral, supervivenci

Citas

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Publicado
2020-03-18
Sección
Revisión de Tema

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