Hipertensión arterial esencial: ¿cuál agente antihipertensivo elegir?
PDF

Palabras clave

Hipertensión, Hipertensión Esencial, Antihipertensivos

Cómo citar

Buitrago-Gómez, N., Figueroa-Torregroza, L., Campo-Rivera, N., & Casanova-Valderrama, M. E. (2022). Hipertensión arterial esencial: ¿cuál agente antihipertensivo elegir?. Salud UIS, 54. https://doi.org/10.18273/saluduis.54.e:22024

Resumen

Introducción: la hipertensión arterial sistémica (HTA) constituye el principal factor de riesgo para morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular a nivel global, afecta a todas las edades, sin distinción de género y etnicidad. Su tratamiento continúa constituyendo un reto, dada la persistencia del pobre control, especialmente en países como Colombia. Objetivo: mostrar la evidencia disponible respecto al tratamiento actualizado de la HTA y la elección certera de
los agentes antihipertensivos acorde con la individualidad de cada paciente. Asimismo, consolidar y comparar el efecto hipotensor de cada agente antihipertensivo más usado. Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda avanzada con los términos DeCS y MeSH: hipertensión, agentes antihipertensivos, hipertensión esencial y terapia combinada,
en los motores de búsqueda PubMed, Clinical Key, Lilacs, Scielo. Un total de 109 artículos se seleccionaron para
elaborar en la presente revisión de la literatura. Conclusiones: la individualización del manejo de la HTA lleva al reconocimiento de los distintos fenotipos, la presencia de complicaciones, el examen físico, el género y la raza como puntos fundamentales para elegir el agente antihipertensivo más adecuado que permita alcanzar las metas de control y propenda por la reducción y prevención de las complicaciones derivadas de un control no óptimo.

https://doi.org/10.18273/saluduis.54.e:22024
PDF

Referencias

Oparil S, Acelajado MC, Bakris GL, Berlowitz DR, Cífková R, Dominiczak AF, et al. Hypertension. Nat

Rev Dis Prim. 2018; 4(1): 18014. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2018.14

Leontsinis I, Mantzouranis M, Tsioufis P, Andrikou I, Tsioufis C. Recent advances in managing primary

hypertension. Fac Rev. 202; 9. doi: https://doi.org/10.12703/b/9-4

Mills KT, Stefanescu A, He J. The global epidemiology of hypertension. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2020; 16(4): 223-237. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-019-0244-2

Ruilope LM, Banegas JR, Ruiz-Hurtado G. Hypertension in Latin/Hispanic Population. In: Hypertension: A Companion to Braunwald’s heart disease. Third Edit. Elsevier Inc.; 2018. p. 15-20. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-42973-3.00002-0

Zurique-Sánchez MS, Zurique-Sánchez CP, Camacho-López PA, Sánchez-Sanabria MS, Hernández-Hernández SC. Prevalencia de hipertensión arterial en Colombia. Acta médica Colomb. 2019; 1-15. doi: https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2019.1293

Carey RM, Muntner P, Bosworth HB, Whelton PK. Prevention and control of hypertension. J Am Coll

Cardiol. 2018; 72(11): 1278-1293. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.07.008

Byrd JB, Brook RD. Hypertension. Ann Intern Med. 2019; 170(9): ITC65. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/AITC201905070

Gómez JF, Camacho PA, López-López J, López Jaramillo P. Control y tratamiento de la hipertensión

arterial: Programa 20-20. Rev Colomb Cardiol. 2019; 26(2): 99-106. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rccar.2018.06.008

Aristizábal D, Acosta M, García E. Fenotipos y genotipos hipertensivos. En: Alteraciones en la regulación de la presión arterial, evaluación hemodinámica e implicaciones clínicas. 2019. p. 160-193.

Sinski M, Jedrusik P, Lewandowski J. Why not all hypertensive patients are tachycardic at rest? Curr

Pharm Des. 2017; 23(31): 4626-4634. doi: https://doi.org/10.2174/1381612823666170608085629

Palatini P, Rosei EA, Casiglia E, Chalmers J, Ferrari R, Grassi G, et al. Management of the hypertensive

patient with elevated heart rate. J Hypertens. 2016; 34(5): 813-821. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000865

Dillinger J-G, Maher V, Vitale C, Henry P, Logeart D, Manzo Silberman S, et al. Impact of Ivabradine on central aortic blood pressure and myocardial perfusion in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Hypertension. 2015; 66(6): 1138-1144. doi: https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06091

Lopatin YM, Vitale C. Effect of ivabradine on central aortic blood pressure in patients with stable

coronary artery disease: What do we know? Int J Cardiol. 2016; 224: 145-148. doi: https://doi.

org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.09.054

Simko F, Baka T. Ivabradine and blood pressure reduction: underlying pleiotropic mechanisms and clinical implications. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021; 8: 607998. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.607998

Hohneck AL, Fries P, Ströder J, Schneider G, Wagenpfeil S, Schirmer SH, et al. Effects of heart rate reduction with ivabradine on vascular stiffness and endothelial function in chronic stable coronary

artery disease. J Hypertens. 2019; 37(5):1023-1031. doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000001984

Dalal J, Dasbiswas A, Sathyamurthy I, Maddury SR, Kerkar P, Bansal S, et al. Heart rate in hypertension:

Review and expert opinion. Int J Hypertens. 2019; 2087064. doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2087064

Unger T, Borghi C, Charchar F, Khan NA, Poulter NR, Prabhakaran D, et al. 2020 International Society of hypertension global hypertension practice guidelines. Hypertension. 2020; 75(6): 1334-1357. doi: https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15026

Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, Agabiti Rosei E, Azizi M, Burnier M, et al. 2018 Practice guidelines

for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Cardiology and the European

Society of Hypertension. J Hypertens. 2018; 36(12): 2284-2309. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001961

Cruickshank JM. The Role of beta-blockers in the treatment of hypertension. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017; 2: 149-166. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/5584_2016_36

Nerenberg KA, Zarnke KB, Leung AA, Dasgupta K, Butalia S, McBrien K, et al. Hypertension Canada’s

guidelines for diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults

and children. Can J Cardiol. 2018; 34(5): 506-525. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2018.02.022

Shariq OA, McKenzie TJ. Obesity-related hypertension: a review of pathophysiology, management, and the role of metabolic surgery. Gland Surg. 2020; 9(1): 80-93. doi: 10.21037/gs.2019.12.03

Wenzel UO, Benndorf R, Lange S. Treatment of arterial hypertension in obese patients. Semin Nephrol. 2013; 33(1): 66-74. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semnephrol.2012.12.009

Kidambi S, Kotchen TA. Treatment of hypertension in obese patients. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2013;

(3): 163-175. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40256-013-0008-5

DiNicolantonio JJ, Fares H, Niazi AK, Chatterjee S, D’Ascenzo F, Cerrato E, et al. β-Blockers in hypertension, diabetes, heart failure and acute myocardial infarction: a review of the literature. Open Heart. 2015; 2(1): e000230. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2014-000230

Ozyıldız AG, Eroglu S, Bal U, Atar I, Okyay K, Muderrisoglu H. Effects of carvedilol compared to

nebivolol on insulin resistance and lipid profile in patients with essential hypertension. J Cardiovasc

Pharmacol Ther. 2017; 22(1): 65-70. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1074248416644987

Nazarzadeh M, Bidel Z, Canoy D, Copland E, Wamil M, Majert J, et al. Blood pressure lowering and risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: an individual participant data meta-analysis. Lancet. 2021; 398(10313): 1803-1810. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01920-6

Thomopoulos C, Bazoukis G, Tsioufis C, Mancia G. Beta-blockers in hypertension: overview and

meta-analysis of randomized outcome trials. J Hypertens. 2020; 38(9): 1669-1681. doi: 10.1097/

HJH.0000000000002523

Messerli FH, Bangalore S, Bavishi C, Rimoldi SF. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertension: To use or not to use? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018; 71(13): 1474-1482. doi: https://doi.

org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.01.058

Chang CH, Lin JW, Caffrey JL, Wu LC, Lai MS. Different angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and the associations with overall and cause-specific mortalities in patients with hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2015; 28(6): 823-830. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpu237

Dimou C, Antza C, Akrivos E, Doundoulakis I, Stabouli S, Haidich AB, et al. A systematic review and network meta-analysis of the comparative efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 2019; 33(3): 188-201. doi: http://

dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-018-0138-y

Zou Z, Xi GL, Yuan HB, Zhu QF, Shi XY. Telmisartan versus angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension: A metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hum Hypertens. 2009; 23(5): 339-349. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2008.132

Zhang X, Zhang H, Ma Y, Che W, Hamblin MR. Management of hypertension using olmesartan alone or in combination. Cardiol Ther. 2017; 6(1): 13-32. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40119-017-0087-5

Khawaja Z, Wilcox CS. An overview of candesartan in clinical practice. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2011; 9(8): 975-982. doi: https://doi.org/10.1586/erc.11.90

Pradhan A, Tiwari A, Sethi R. Azilsartan: Current evidence and perspectives in management of hypertension. Int J Hypertens. 2019; 2019: 1824621 doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1824621

Goudev A, Berrou JP, Pathak A. Effect of eprosartan-based therapy on systolic blood pressure and total cardiovascular risk in a large international population: Preliminary report of the observational

POWER study. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2012; 8(1): 563-568. doi: https://doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S34834

Sakamoto M, Asakura M, Nakano A, Kanzaki H, Sugano Y, Amaki M, et al. Azilsartan, but not candesartan improves left ventricular diastolic function in patients with hypertension and heart

failure. Int J Gerontol. 2015; 9(4): 201-205. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijge.2015.06.003

Smith SM, Campbell JD. Cost-effectiveness of renin-guided treatment of hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2013; 26(11): 1303-1310. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpt099

Viera AJ, Furberg CD. Plasma renin testing to guide antihypertensive therapy. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2015; 17(1): 506. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-014-0506-0

Phyllips A. Should we routinely measure renin levels to diagnose and treat patients with ypertension? J Clin Hypertens. 2005; 7(1): 33-35. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-6175.2005.03942.x

Athimulam S, Lazik N, Bancos I. Low-renin hypertension. endocrinol metab clin North Am. 2019; 48(4): 701-715. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2019.08.003

Mulatero P, Verhovez A, Morello F, Veglio F. Diagnosis and treatment of low-renin hypertension.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007; 67(3): 324-334. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.02898.x

Sahay M, Sahay R. Low renin hypertension. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 16(5): 728. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.100665

Chen P, Chaugai S, Zhao F, Wang DW. Cardioprotective effect of thiazide-like diuretics: A meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens. 2015; 28(12): 1453-1463. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpv050

Engberink RHGO, Frenkel WJ, Van Den Bogaard B, Brewster LM, Vogt L, Van Den Born BJH. Effects of thiazide-type and thiazide-like diuretics on cardiovascular events and mortality: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Hypertension. 2015; 65(5): 1033-1040. doi: https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.05122

Burnier M, Bakris G, Williams B. Redefining diuretics use in hypertension: Why select a thiazidelike diuretic? J Hypertens. 2019; 37(8): 1574-1586. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000002088

Coca A, López-Jaramillo P, Thomopoulos C, Zanchetti A. Best antihypertensive strategies to improve blood pressure control in Latin America: Position of the Latin American Society of Hypertension. J Hypertens. 2018; 36(2): 208-220. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001593

Roush GC, Abdelfattah R, Song S, Ernst ME, Sica DA, Kostis JB. Hydrochlorothiazide vs chlorthalidone, indapamide, and potassium-sparing/hydrochlorothiazide diuretics for reducing left ventricular hypertrophy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Hypertens. 2018; 20(10): 1507-1515. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jch.13386

Liang W, Ma H, Cao L, Yan W, Yang J. Comparison of thiazide-like diuretics versus thiazide-type

diuretics: a meta-analysis. J Cell Mol Med. 2017; 21(11): 2634-2642. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/

jcmm.13205

Brown MJ, Williams B, Morant S V, Webb DJ, Caulfield MJ, Cruickshank JK, et al. Effect of amiloride, or amiloride plus hydrochlorothiazide, versus hydrochlorothiazide on glucose tolerance and blood pressure (PATHWAY-3): A parallel-group, double-blind randomised phase 4 trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2016; 4(2): 136-147. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00377-0

Chapman N, Dobson J, Wilson S, Dahlöf B, Sever PS, Wedel H, et al. Effect of spironolactone on blood

pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension. Hypertension. 2007; 49(4): 839-845. doi: https://

doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000259805.18468.8c

Williams B, Macdonald TM, Morant S, Webb DJ, Sever P, McInnes G, et al. Spironolactone versus

placebo, bisoprolol, and doxazosin to determine the optimal treatment for drug-resistant hypertension

(PATHWAY-2): A randomised, double-blind, crossover trial. Lancet. 2015; 386(10008): 2059-2068. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00257-3

Tocci G, Battistoni A, Passerini J, Musumeci MB, Francia P, Ferrucci A, et al. Calcium channel blockers and hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2015; 20(2): 121-130. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1074248414555403

Pérez-Maraver M, Carrera MJ, Micaló T, Sahun M, Vinzia C, Soler J, et al. Renoprotective effect of diltiazem in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients with persistent microalbuminuria despite ACE inhibitor treatment. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005; 70(1): 13-19. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2005.02.019

Cativo EH, Lopez PD, Cativo DP, Atlas SA, Rosendorff C. The dffect of calcium channel blockers on moderate or severe albuminuria in diabetic, hypertensive patients. Am J Med. 2021; 134(1): 104-113.e3. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.05.039

Helmer A, Slater N, Smithgall S. A review of ACE inhibitors and ARBs in black patients

with hypertension. Ann Pharmacother. 2018; 52(11): 1143-1151. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1060028018779082

Clemmer JS, Pruett WA, Lirette ST. Racial and sex differences in the response to first-line antihypertensive therapy. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2020; 7: 608037. doi: https://doi.org/10.3389/

fcvm.2020.608037

Spence JD, Rayner BL. Hypertension in Blacks. Hypertension. 2018; 72(2): 263-269. doi: https://

doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.11064

Flack JM, Adekola B. Blood pressure and the new ACC/AHA hypertension guidelines. Trends

Cardiovasc Med. 2020; 30(3): 160-164. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcm.2019.05.003

Dudenbostel T, Glasser SP. Effects of antihypertensive drugs on arterial stiffness. Cardiol Rev. 2012; 20(5): 259-263. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/CRD.0b013e31825d0a44

Bowles NP, Thosar SS, Herzig MX, Shea SA. Chronotherapy for hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2018; 20(11): 1-37. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-018-0897-4

Mathur P, Kadavath S, Marsh JD, Mehta JL. Chronotherapy for hypertension: Improvement in

patient outcomes with bedtime administration of antihypertensive drugs. Eur Heart J. 2020; 41(48):

-4579. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz836

Cicero AFG, Landolfo M, Borghi C. Are monotherapies still valuable to the treatment of

hypertension? Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2020; 21(13): 1523-1526. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/14

2020.1770728

Mancia G, Rea F, Corrao G, Grassi G. Twodrug combinations as first-step antihypertensive

treatment. Circ Res. 2019; 124(7): 1113-1123. doi:

https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.313294

Chow CK, Atkins ER, Hillis GS, Nelson MR, Reid CM, Schlaich MP, et al. Initial treatment with a single

pill containing quadruple combination of quarter doses of blood pressure medicines versus standard

dose monotherapy in patients with hypertension (QUARTET): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled trial. Lancet. 2021; 398(10305): 1043-1052. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-

(21)01922-X

Ram CVS. Beta-blockers in hypertension. Am J Cardiol. 2010; 106(12): 1819-1825. doi: https://doi.

org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.08.023

Yusoff K, Razak TA, Yusof N, Rafee NM. Comparative efficacy of perindopril and enalapril once daily using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Int J Clin Prac. 1999; 53(4): 277-280.

Nedogoda SV, Ledyaeva AA, Chumachok EV, Tsoma VV, Mazina G, Salasyuk AS, et al. Randomized trial

of perindopril, enalapril, losartan and telmisartan in overweight or obese patients with hypertension. Clin

Drug Investig. 2013; 33(8): 553-561. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40261-013-0094-9

Smith DHG, Neutel JM, Black HR, Schoenberger JA, Weber MA. Once-daily monotherapy with

trandolapril in the treatment of hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 1996; 10(2): 129-134.

Kaplan NM, Sproul LE, Mulcahy WS. Large prospective study of ramipril in patients with hypertension. Clin Ther. 1993; 15(5): 810-818.

Sleight P. The HOPE Study (Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation). J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2000; 1(1): 18-20. doi: https://doi.org/10.3317/jraas.2000.002

Byyny RL. Losartan potassium lowers blood pressure measured by ambulatory blood pressure

monitoring. J Hypertens. 1995; 13(Supplement 1): S29-33. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00004872-

-00004

Smith DHG, Matzek KM, Kempthorne-Rawson J. Dose response and safety of telmisartan in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. J Clin Pharmacol. 2000; 40(12 Pt 1): 1380-1390.

Böhm M, Ewald S. Blood pressure reduction with olmesartan in mild-to-moderate essential

hypertension: A planned interim analysis of an open label sub-study in German patients. Curr Med

Res Opin. 2006; 22(7): 1375-1380. doi: https://doi.org/10.1185/030079906X115630

Pool JL, Glazer R, Chiang YT, Gatlin M. Doseresponse efficacy of valsartan, a new angiotensin

II receptor blocker. J Hum Hypertens. 1999; 13(4): 275-281. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jhh.1000788

Burnier M, Forni V, Wuerzner G, Pruijm M. Longterm use and tolerability of irbesartan for control of

hypertension. Integr Blood Press Control. 2011; 17. doi: https://doi.org/10.2147/IBPC.S12211

Strutz F, Bramlage P, Paar WD. Effect of three months’ treatment with irbesartan on blood and pulse pressure of hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients: Open, observational study in 31793 patients. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005; 21(9): 1433-1440. doi: 10.1185/030079905X61811

Rakugi H, Enya K, Sugiura K, Ikeda Y. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of azilsartan with that of

candesartan cilexetil in Japanese patients with grade I-II essential hypertension: A randomized, doubleblind clinical study. Hypertens Res. 2012; 35(5): 552-558. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/hr.2012.8

Dézsi CA. The different therapeutic choices with ARBs. Which one to give? When? Why? Am J

Cardiovasc Drugs. 2016; 16(4): 255-266. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40256-016-0165-4

Musini VM, Nazer M, Bassett K, Wright JM. Blood pressure-lowering efficacy of monotherapy

with thiazide diuretics for primary hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014; 5: CD003824.

doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003824

Ernst ME, Carter BL, Goerdt CJ, Steffensmeier JJG, Phillips BB, Zimmerman MB, et al. Comparative

antihypertensive effects of hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone on ambulatory and office blood pressure. Hypertension. 2006; 47(3): 352-358. doi: https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000203309.07140.d3

London GM. Efficacy of indapamide 1.5mg, sustained release, in the lowering of systolic blood

pressure. J Hum Hypertens. 2004; 18(SUPPL. 2): 9-14. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jhh.1001799

Tam TSC, Wu MH, Masson SC, Tsang MP, Stabler SN, Kinkade A, et al. Eplerenone for hypertension.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017; 2017(2). doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858

Attar A, Sadeghi AA, Amirmoezi F, Aghasadeghi K. Low dose spironolactone monotherapy in the

management of stage I essential hypertension: A pilot randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

trial. Acta Cardiol Sin. 2018;34(1):59-65. doi: 10.6515/ACS.201801_34(1).20170903B

Oxlund CS, Buhl KB, Jacobsen IA, Hansen MR, Gram J, Henriksen JE, et al. Amiloride lowers blood

pressure and attenuates urine plasminogen activation in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension.

J Am Soc Hypertens. 2014; 8(12): 872-881. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jash.2014.09.019

Frishman WH, Brobyn R, Brown RD, Johnson BF, Reeves RL, Wombolt DG. A randomized placebocontrolled comparison of Amlodipine and Atenolol in mild to moderate systemic hypertension. J

Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1988; 12(Suppl. 7): S103-106. doi: 10.1097/00005344-198812007-00023

Mancia G, Cha G, Gil-Extremera B, Harvey P, Lewin AJ, Villa G, et al. Blood pressure-lowering effects of nifedipine/candesartan combinations in high-risk individuals: Subgroup analysis of the DISTINCT randomised trial. J Hum Hypertens. 2017; 31(3): 178-188. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2016.54

Mancia G. Effects of verapamil SR, trandolapril, and their fixed combination on 24-h blood pressure:

The Veratran Study. Am J Hypertens. 1997; 10(5 I): 492-499. doi: 10.1016/s0895-7061(96)00486-4

Pool PE, Massie BM, Venkataraman K, Hirsch AT, Samant DR, Seagren SC, et al. Diltiazem as monotherapy for systemic hypertension: A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled

trial. Am J Cardiol. 1986; 57(4): 212-217. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(86)90893-3

Creative Commons License

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución 4.0.

Derechos de autor 2022 Nathalia Buitrago-Gómez, Lunevar Figueroa-Torregroza, Natalia Campo-Rivera, María Eugenia Casanova-Valderrama

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.