Variantes Alpha y Gamma del SARS-CoV-2: revisión rápida para contribuir en la toma de decisiones

Resumen

Objetivo: describir el riesgo de transmisión y severidad de las variantes de preocupación Alpha y Gamma del SARS-CoV-2 en comparación con otras variantes. Materiales y métodos: revisión rápida y narrativa de literatura realizada en PubMed hasta mayo 10 de 2021. Resultados: la búsqueda capturó 262 artículos, de los cuales se incluyeron 15 estudios. Cuatro fueron incluidos en el control de referencias. De los 19 estudios, 6 corresponden con literatura gris. La mayoría de los estudios analizaron la variante de preocupación Alpha, solo uno para Gamma. La variante de preocupación Alpha es consistente con mayor riesgo de transmisión (entre el 35 y 89 % mayor riesgo), de hospitalización (entre 64 y 234 % mayor riesgo) y de muerte (entre 36 y 140 % mayor riesgo) en comparación con otras variantes. La variante de preocupación Gamma reporta una posible correlación fuerte y positiva entre proporción positivos y las muertes (Rho 0,71; p <0,01). Conclusiones: se encuentra más información de la variante de preocupación Alpha que de Gamma. La variante de preocupación Alpha reporta mayor riesgo de transmisión, hospitalización y muerte en comparación con otras variantes; pero estos resultados deben tomarse con precaución.

Palabras clave: Coronavirus, Infecciones por Coronavirus, Transmisión, Hospitalización, Cuidados Críticos, Mortalidad

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Biografía del autor/a

Jean Carlos Pineda-Lozano, Instituto Nacional de Salud
   

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Publicado
2021-08-17
Sección
Revisión de Tema