Anticoagulación en pacientes con infección por COVID-19

Resumen

Introducción: El COVID-19 es una neumonía por el nuevo Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, con presentación clínica muy heterogénea, que en casos graves puede asociarse con un alto riesgo de coagulación intravascular diseminada, similar a lo observada en la coagulopatía inducida por sepsis, pero con un fenotipo predominantemente trombótico. Por esto, La anticoagulación debe ser considerado como una estrategia terapéutica en este tipo de pacientes.  Objetivos: Mostrar toda la literatura disponible sobre los beneficios de la anticoagulación en COVID-19 grave. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda avanzada con los términos DeSC y MeSH: Infecciones por Coronavirus; SARS-CoV; Coagulación Sanguínea; Coagulación Intravascular Diseminada; Disfunción orgánica múltiple; Sepsis; Síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica; Lesión renal aguda. Se utilizaron los motores de búsqueda Clinical Key, Embase, PubMed y Ovid, obteniendo un total de 143 resultados, entre artículos originales, reportes de casos, series de casos y revisiones de la literatura, se seleccionaron un total de 56 artículos que fueron utilizados para la elaboración de la presente revisión de la literatura. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con COVID-19 grave poseen alto riesgo trombótico y podrían beneficiarse de la anticoagulación con heparinas de bajo peso molecular; no obstante, hace falta más estudios sobre la utilidad del tratamiento anticoagulante en pacientes con COVID-19 grave y riesgo de coagulación intravascular diseminada.

Palabras clave: Infecciones por coronavirus, SARS-CoV, Coagulación sanguínea, Coagulación intravascular diseminada, Disfunción orgánica múltiple, Sepsis, Síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, Lesión renal aguda

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Publicado
2020-10-24
Sección
Revisión de Tema