Programas e intervenciones educativas ofrecidas al personal farmacéutico para mejorar la prestación de los servicios asistenciales farmacéuticos: una revisión estructurada

Resumen

Objetivo: Describir los programas y las intervenciones educativas ofrecidas al personal farmacéutico para mejorar la prestación de los servicios asistenciales farmacéuticos, y los métodos utilizados para evaluar la efectividad de estos programas.

Métodos: Se realizó una revisión estructurada utilizando la base de datos PubMed/Medline entre de 2007 y 2019, sobre el desarrollo, la descripción, la evaluación del impacto, la efectividad o la comparación de una intervención educativa, un entrenamiento específico o un programa educativo dirigido al personal farmacéutico de farmacias comunitarias (ambulatorias) y/o hospitalarias.

Resultados: En total 1070 referencias bibliográficas fueron identificadas, además, se incluyeron 26 referencias identificadas por otras fuentes, y se seleccionaron 90 artículos para su revisión y análisis. Se encontró que el 70% (63) de los estudios fueron desarrollados en países desarrollados, principalmente en Estados Unidos, Australia, Canadá e Inglaterra. El 67% (60) de los estudios se realizaron a nivel ambulatorio, el 10% (9) a nivel hospitalario, y el 23% (21) en ambos contextos. Se encontró que las intervenciones fueron clasificadas en tres categorías: entrenamientos específicos (41%), programas de Educación Continua (43%) y de Desarrollo Profesional Continuo (16%). La metodología o métodos de suministro de la intervención más común fue la presencial en el 72% (65) de los estudios, seguido de metodologías apoyadas de herramientas virtuales en el 28% (25) y en el 11% (10) de los estudios combinaron métodos presenciales y virtuales. El tiempo de duración de las intervenciones educativas vario entre menos de 1 hora a 120 horas.

Conclusión: Se describen los programas y las intervenciones educativas ofrecidas al personal farmacéutico principalmente para mejorar sus competencias laborales y la prestación de los servicios asistenciales farmacéuticos, además de los métodos utilizados para evaluar la efectividad de las intervenciones educativas.

 

Palabras clave: Personal Famacéutico, Farmacéuticos, Educación Continua, Desarrollo Continuo, Farmacias

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Referencias

1. Christensen DB, Farris KB. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: Practice and research in the US. Ann Pharmacother. 2006; 40(7-8): 1400-1406. https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1G545

2. Organización Mundial de la Salud OMS. Federación Internacional Farmacéutica FIP. Directrices Conjuntas FIP/OMS sobre Buenas Prácticas en Farmacia: Estándares para la calidad de los servicios farmacéuticos. 2011. https://www.
paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2013/GPP-guidelinesFIP-publication-ES-2011.pdf

3. Vacca CP, Niño CY, Reveiz L. Restriction of antibiotic sales in pharmacies in Bogotá, Colombia: a descriptive study. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2011; 30(6): 586-591. PMID: 22358407.

4. Ceballos M, Giraldo J, Giraldo J, Marín V, Amariles P. Caracterización de aspectos relacionados con la utilización de los medicamentos fiscalizados en droguerías y farmacias-droguerías de Medellín y el área metropolitana. Rev Univ Ind Santander Salud. 2018; 50(1): 27-36. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18273/revsal.v50n1-2018003

5. Alshammari TM, Alhindi SA, Alrashdi AM, Benmerzouga I, Aljofan M. Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharm J. 2017;
25(5): 709-714. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.001

6. Schostak J, Davis M, Hanson J, Schostak J, Brown T, Driscoll P, et al. Effectiveness of continuing professional development project: A summary of findings. Med Teach. 2010; 32(7): 586-592. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2010.489129

7. McConnell KJ, Delate T, Newlon CL. Impact of continuing professional development versus traditional continuing pharmacy education on learning behaviors. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2012; 52(6): 742-752. doi: https://doi.org/10.1331/
JAPhA.2012.11080

8. Davis D, O’Brien MAT, Freemantle N, Wolf FM, Mazmanian P, Taylor-Vaisey A. Impact of formal continuing medical education: Do conferences, workshops, rounds, and other traditional continuing education activities change physician
behavior or health care outcomes? JAMA. 1999; 282(9): 867-874. doi: 10.1001/jama.282.9.867

9. Organización Panamericana de la Salud PAHO. Propuesta de Plan Básico de Educación Farmacéutica y Competencias del Farmacéutico para la práctica profesional Conferencia Panamericana de Educación Farmacéutica
(CPEF). 2014. http://www.observatoriorh.org/sites/default/files/webfiles/fulltext/2014/ix_cpef/PlanBasico.pdf

10. Organización Mundial de la Salud OMS. Federación Internacional Farmacéutica FIP. Competencias del farmacéutico para desarrollar los servicios farmacéuticos (SF) basados en Atención Primaria de Salud (APS) y las Buenas Prácticas en Farmacia (BPF). Grupo Técnico para el desarrollo de competencias para los Servicios Farmacéuticos (GT-CSF). 2012. https://www.paho.org/es/documentos/competencias-farmaceutico-paradesarrollar-servicios-farmaceuticos-sf-basadosatencion

11. Rouse MJ. Continuing professional development in pharmacy. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2004; 44(4): 517-520. doi: 10.1331/1544345041475634

12. Federación Internacional Farmacéutica FIP. International Pharmaceutical Federation Continuing Professional Development/Continuing Education in Pharmacy: Global Repor. 2014. https://www.fip.org/file/1407

13. Obreli-Neto PR, Marques dos Reis T, Guidoni CM, Girotto E, Guerra ML, de Oliveira Baldoni A, et al.
A Systematic review of the effects of continuing education programs on providing clinical community pharmacy services. Am J Pharm Educ. 2016; 80(5): 88. doi: 10.5688/ajpe80588

14. Ceballos JM, Amariles P. Needs and opportunities for outpatient pharmacies in colombia: The case of continuing education programs for pharmacists. Vitae. 2017; 24(1). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17533/udea.vitae.v24n1a01

15. Farrell B, Jennings B, Ward N, Marks PZ, Kennie N, Dolovich L, et al. Evaluation of a pilot e-learning primary health care skills training program for pharmacists. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2013; 5(6): 580-592. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2013.07.005

16. Farrell B, Ward N, Jennings B, Jones C, Jorgenson D, Gubbels-Smith A, et al. Participation in online continuing education. Int J Pharm Pract. 2016; 24(1): 60-71. doi: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ijpp.12202

17. Buxton EC, De Muth JE. Pharmacists’ perceptions of a live continuing education program comparing distance learning versus local learning. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2013; 9(2): 230-235. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.05.003

18. Hudmon KS, Hoch MA, Vitale FM, Wahl KR, Corelli RL, Moor C de. Tobacco cessation education
for pharmacists: Face-to-face presentations versus live webinars. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2014; 54(1): 42-44. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2014.13001

19. Hughes CA, Schindel TJ. Evaluation of a professional development course for pharmacists on laboratory values: can practice change? Int J Pharm Pract. 2010; 18(3): 174-179.

20. Javadi M, Kargar A, Gholami K, Hadjibabaie M, Rashidian A, Torkamandi H, et al. Didactic lecture versus interactive workshop for continuing pharmacy education on reproductive health: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Eval Health
Prof. 2015; 38(3): 404-418. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0163278713513949

21. Sarayani A, Rashidian A, Gholami K, Torkamandi H, Javadi M. Efficacy of continuing education in improving pharmacists’ competencies for providing weight management service: three-arm randomized controlled trial. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2012; 32(3): 163-73. doi: 10.1002/chp.21141

22. Ceballos M, Salazar-Ospina A, Sabater-Hernández D, Amariles P. Evaluation of the effects of a drug
with fiscalized substance dispensation, health education, and pharmacovigilance continuing education program in Colombia drugstores and drugstores/pharmacies: study protocol of a multicenter, cluster-randomized controll. Trials.
2020; 21(545): doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04481-1

23. Donald Kirkpatrick JK. Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels. 2008.

24. Dhital R, Whittlesea CM, Milligan P, Khan NS, Norman IJ. The impact of training and delivering alcohol brief intervention on the knowledge and attitudes of community pharmacists: A before and after study. Drug Alcohol Rev 2013; 32(2): 147-156. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2012.00513.x

25. Meštrović A, Staničić Z, Hadžiabdić MO, Mucalo I, Bates I, Duggan C, et al. Individualized education and competency development of Croatian community pharmacists using the general level framework. Am J Pharm Educ. 2012; 76(2): 23; doi: https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe76223

26. Terblanche A, Meyer JC, Godman B, Summers RS. Impact of a pharmacist-driven pharmacovigilance
system in a secondary hospital in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Hosp Pract. 2018; 46(4): 221-228. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/21548331.2018.1510708

27. Minh PD, Huong DTM, Byrkit R, Murray M. Strengthening pharmacy practice in vietnam: findings of a training intervention study. Trop Med Int Health. 2013; 18(4): 426-434. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12062

28. Bajorek B V, Lemay KS, Magin PJ, Roberts C, Krass I, Armour CL. Preparing pharmacists to deliver a targeted service in hypertension management: evaluation of an interprofessional training program. BMC Med Educ. 2015; 15(1):
157. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.12062

29. Pham DM, Byrkit M, Pham H Van, Pham T, Nguyen CT. Improving pharmacy staff knowledge and practice on childhood diarrhea management in Vietnam: Are educational interventions effective? PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e74882. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074882

30. Ngwerume K, Watson M, Bond C, Blenkinsopp A. An evaluation of an intervention designed to improve the evidence-based supply of non-prescription medicines from community pharmacies. Int J Pharm Pract. 2015; 23(2): 102-
110. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12118

31. Chowdhury F, Sturm-Ramirez K, Mamun A Al, Iuliano AD, Chisti MJ, Ahmed M, et al. Effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve antibiotic dispensing practices for acute respiratory illness among drug sellers in pharmacies, a pilot study in Bangladesh. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018; 18(1): 676. doi: 10.1186/s12913-018-3486-y

32. Jha N, Rathore DS, Shankar PR, Bhandary S, Pandit RB, Gyawali S, et al. Effect of an educational intervention on knowledge and attitude regarding pharmacovigilance and consumer pharmacovigilance among community pharmacists in Lalitpur district, Nepal. BMC Res Notes. 2017; 10(1): 4. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-016-2343-5

33. Hussain A, Ibrahim MI, Malik M. Impact of educational intervention on knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2013; 11(3): 144-148. doi: 10.4321/s1886-36552013000300004

34. O’Neal KS, Murray KA, Skomo ML, Carter SM, McConaha J. Validation of a survey tool assessing effectiveness of an educational intervention on the caring behaviors and referral activities of community pharmacists for migraineurs. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2015; 11(3): 352-363. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2014.08.012

35. Zillich AJ, Corelli RL, Zbikowski SM, Magnusson LB, Fenlon CM, Prokhorov AV, et al. A randomized trial evaluating 2 approaches for promoting pharmacy-based referrals to the tobacco quitline: Methods and baseline findings. Res Soc
Adm Pharm. 2013; 9(1): 27-36. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.03.001

36. Chartrand M, Lalonde L, Cantin A, Lahaie A, Odobasic B, Tremblay MP, et al. Anticoagulation management services in community pharmacy: Feasibility of implementing a quality improvement programme through a practice-based research network. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2018; 43(6): 877-887. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12745

37. Thomas T, Passfield L, Coulton S, Crone D. Effectiveness of a tailored training programme in behaviour change counselling for community pharmacists: A pilot study. Patient Educ Couns. 2016; 99(1): 132-138. doi: https://doi.
org/10.1016/j.pec.2015.08.004

38. Gheewala PA, Peterson GM, Zaidi STR, Bereznicki L, Jose MD, Castelino RL. A webbased training program to support chronic kidney disease screening by community pharmacists. Int J Clin Pharm. 2016; 38(5): 1080-1086. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-016-0330-5

39. O’Reilly CL, Wong E, Chen TF. A feasibility study of community pharmacists performing depression screening services. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2015; 11(3): 364-381. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2014.08.013

40. Longman C, Lintzeris N, Temple-Smith M, Gilchrist G. Methadone and buprenorphine prescribing patterns of Victorian general practitioners: their first 5 years after authorisation. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2011; 30(4): 355-359. doi:
10.1111/j.1465-3362.2010.00212.x

41. Palmer E, Hart S, Freeman PR. Development and delivery of a pharmacist training program to increase naloxone access in Kentucky. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2017; 57(2S): S118-122. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2016.12.071

42. Guirguis LM, Lee S, Sanghera R. Impact of an interactive workshop on community pharmacists’ beliefs toward patient care. Int J Clin Pharm. 2012; 34(3): 460-467. doi: 10.1007/s11096-012-9630-6

43. Laven A, Deters MA, Rose O, Schwender H, Smaranda A, Waltering I, et al. PharmAdhere: training German community pharmacists with Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. Int J Clin Pharm. 2018; 40(5): 1317-1327. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-018-0710-0

44. Bungard TJ, Schindel TJ, Garg S, Brocklebank C. Evaluation of a multi staged professional development course for practising pharmacists in anticoagulation management. Int J Pharm Pract. 2012; 20(2): 107-117. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7174.2011.00171.x

45. Fjortoft N. The effectiveness of commitment to change statements on improving practice behaviors following continuing pharmacy education. Am J Pharm Educ. 2007; 71(6): 112. doi: 10.5688/aj7106112

46. Diamantouros A, Marchesano R, Geerts WH, Pennefather P, Zwarenstein M, Austin Z. Development and evaluation of a continuing pharmacy education (CPE) program in thrombosis management. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2017;
9(5): 911-917. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2017.05.008

47. Kirk JK, Edwards R, Brewer A, Miller C, Bray B, Groce JB. Overview of a pharmacist anticoagulation certificate program. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2017; 9(4): 707-712. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2017.03.015

48. Moczygemba LR, Pierce AL, Dang A, Emberley P, Czar MJ, Matzke GR. The ADAPT online education program: A tool for practicing pharmacists delivering patient-centered care. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2017; 57(5): 601-617. doi: https://
doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2017.05.007

49. Martin BA, Bruskiewitz RH, Chewning BA. Effect of a tobacco cessation continuing professional education program on pharmacists’ confidence, skills, and practice-change behaviors. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2010; 50(1): 9-18a. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2010.09034

50. Stafford L, Peterson GM, Bereznicki LR, Jackson SL, van Tienen EC. Training Australian pharmacists for participation in a collaborative, home-based post-discharge warfarin management service. Pharm World Sci. 2010; 32(5): 637-642. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-010-9416-7

51. Legris M-È, Séguin NC, Desforges K, Sauvé P, Lord A, Bell R, et al. Pharmacist Web-based training program on medication use in chronic kidney disease patients: impact on knowledge, skills, and satisfaction. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2011; 31(3): 140-150. doi: 10.1002/chp.20119

52. Lalonde L, Quintana-Bárcena P, Lord A, Bell R, Clément V, Daigneault AM, et al. Community pharmacist training-and-communication network and drug-related problems in patients with CKD: A multicenter, cluster-randomized, controlled trial. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017; 70(3): 386-396. doi: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.05.008

53. Lee SWH, Mak VSL. Train-the-trainer program on cardiovascular health for community pharmacists in Malaysia. Int J Clin Pharm. 2017; 39(6): 1166-1170. doi: 10.1007/s11096-017-0540-5

54. Svetlana S, Ivana T, Tatjana C, Duskana K, Ian B. Evaluation of competences at the community pharmacy settings. Indian J Pharm Educ Res. 2014; 48(4): 22-30. doi: 10.5530/ijper.48.4.4

55. Coombes I, Avent M, Cardiff L, Bettenay K, Coombes J, Whitfield K, et al. Improvement in Pharmacist’s performance facilitated by an adapted competency-based general level framework. J Pharm Pract Res. 2010; 40(2): 111-118. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2055-2335.2010.tb00517.x

56. Rutter V, Wong C, Coombes I, Cardiff L, Duggan C, Yee ML, et al. Use of a general level framework to facilitate performance improvement in hospital pharmacists in Singapore. Am J Pharm Educ. 2012; 76(6): 107. doi: https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe766107

57. Micallef, Kayyali. A Systematic Review of Models Used and Preferences for Continuing Education and Continuin1. Micallef, Kayyali. A systematic review of models used and preferences for continuing education and continuing professional development of pharmacists. Pharmacy. 2019; 7(4): 154. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy7040154

58. Chalker J, Chuc NTK, Falkenberg T, Do NT, Tomson G. STD management by private pharmacies in Hanoi: Practice and knowledge of drug sellers. Sex Transm Infect. 2000; 76(4): 299-302. doi: 10.1136/sti.76.4.299

59. Smith F. The quality of private pharmacy services in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review.
Pharm World Sci; 2009; 31(3): 351-361. doi: 10.1007/s11096-009-9294-z

60. Laing R, Hogerzeil H, Ross-Degnan D. Ten recommendations to improve use of medicines in developing countries. Health Policy Plan. 2001; 16(1): 13-20. doi: 10.1093/heapol/16.1.13

61. Hussain A, Ibrahim M, Izham M. Qualification, knowledge and experience of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan. Pharmacy Pract (Granada). 2011; 9(2): 93-100.

62. Toklu HZ, Hussain A. The changing face of pharmacy practice and the need for a new model of pharmacy education. J Young Pharm. 2013; 5(2): 38-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jyp.2012.09.001

63. Adepu R, Shariff A. Development, validation and implementation of continuous professional development programmes for community pharmacists. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010; 72(5): 557. doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.78520

64. Augustine J, Warholak TL, Hines LE, Sun D, Brown M, Hurwitz J, et al. Ability and use of comparative effectiveness research by P& T Committee Members and Support Staff: A 1-Year Follow-up. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2016;
22(6): 618-625. doi: https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2016.22.6.618

65. Batra P, Aquilino ML, Farris KB. Pharmacy staff perceptions and self-reported behaviors related to providing contraceptive information and counseling. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2015; 55(5): 481-487. doi: https://doi.org/10.1331/
JAPhA.2015.15037

66. Buxton EC, Burns EC, De Muth JE. Professional development webinars for pharmacists. Am J Pharm Educ. 2012; 76(8): 155. doi: 10.5688/ajpe768155

67. Buxton EC. Pharmacists’ Perception of synchronous versus asynchronous distance learning for continuing education programs. Am J Pharm Educ. 2014; 78(1): 8. doi: 10.5688/ajpe7818

68. Charpentier MM, Orr KK, Taveira TH. Improving pharmacist knowledge of oral chemotherapy in the community. Ann Pharmacother. 2012; 46(9): 1205-1211. doi: 10.1345/aph.1R056

69. Chiang YC, Lee CN, Lin YM, Yen YH, Chen HY. Impact of a continuing education program on pharmacists’ knowledge and attitudes toward asthma patient care. Med Princ Pract. 2010; 19(4): 305-311. doi: 10.1159/000312718

70. Condren ME, Desselle SP. The fate of pediatric prescriptions in community pharmacies. J Patient Saf. 2015; 11(2): 79-88. doi: 10.1097/PTS.0b013e3182948a7d

71. Coombes I, Avent M, Cardiff L, Bettenay K, Coombes J, Whitfield K, et al. Improvement in pharmacist’s performance facilitated by an adapted competency-based general level framework. J Pharm Pract Res. 2010; 40(2):111-118. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2055-2335.2010.tb00517.x

72. Donyai P, Alexander AM. Training on the use of a bespoke continuing professional development framework improves the quality of CPD records. Int J Clin Pharm. 2015; 37(6): 1250-1257. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-015-0202-4

73. Dopp AL, Moulton JR, Rouse MJ, Trewet CB. A five-state continuing professional development pilot program for practicing pharmacists. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010; 74(2): 28. doi: 10.5688/aj740228

74. Dualde E, Faus MJ, Santonja FJ, Fernandez-Llimos F. Effectiveness of a videoconference training course on implementing pharmacy services. Pharm World Sci. 2009; 31(6): 638-642. doi: 10.1007/s11096-009-9317-9

75. Dualde E, Font G, Santonja FJ, Faus MJ. Impact of pharmacists’ participation in a pharmacotherapy follow-up program. Am J Pharm Educ. 2012; 76(2): 34. doi: 10.5688/ajpe76234 76. Elaro A, Shah S, Pomare LN, Armour CL, Bosnic-Anticevich S. PACE: Pharmacists use the power of communication in paediatric asthma. Int J Clin Pharm. 2014; 36(5): 976-985. doi: 10.1007/s11096-014-9984-z

77. Feletto E, Lui GWY, Armour C, Saini B. Practice change in community pharmacy: using changemanagement
principles when implementing a pharmacy asthma management service in NSW, Australia. Int J Pharm Pract. 2013; 21(1): 28-37. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7174.2012.00225.x

78. Fitzgerald N, Watson H, McCaig D, Stewart D. Developing and evaluating training for community pharmacists to deliver interventions on alcohol issues. Pharm World Sci. 2009; 31(2): 149-153. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-009-9284-1

79. Formea CM, Nicholson WT, McCullough KB, Berg KD, Berg ML, Cunningham JL, et al. Development and evaluation of a pharmacogenomics educational program for pharmacists. Am J Pharm Educ. 2013; 77(1): 10. doi: https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe77110

80. García PJ, Carcamo CP, Garnett GP, Campos PE, Holmes KK. Improved STD syndrome management by a network of clinicians and pharmacy workers in Peru: The PREVEN Network. Vermund SH, editor. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e47750. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047750

81. Grzeskowiak LE, Thomas AE, To J, Reeve E, Phillips AJ. Enhancing continuing education activities using audience response systems: a single-blind controlled trial. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2015; 35(1): 38-45. doi: 10.1002/chp.21269

82. Hussainy SY, Marriott JL, Beattie J, Nation RL, Dooley MJ. A palliative cancer care flexible education program for Australian community pharmacists. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010; 74(2): 24. doi: 10.5688/aj740224

83. Kjome RLS, Nerhus K, Sandberg S. Implementation of a method for glucose measurements in community pharmacies. Int J Pharm Pract. 2010; 18(1): 13-19. doi: 10.1211/ijpp.18.01.0004

84. Kouladjian L, Chen TF, Gnjidic D, Hilmer SN. Education and assessment of pharmacists on the use of the drug burden index in older adults using a continuing professional development education method. Am J Pharm Educ. 2016; 80(4): 63 doi: 10.5688/ajpe80463
85. Kristina SA, Thavorncharoensap M, Pongcharoensuk P, Prabandari YS. Impact of smoking cessation training for community pharmacists in Indonesia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(8): 3319-3323. doi: 10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.8.3319

86. Kuo GM, Lee KC, Ma JD. Implementation and outcomes of a live continuing education program on pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics. 2013; 14(8): 885-895. doi: 10.2217/pgs.13.77

87. Laaksonen R, Bates I, Duggan C. Training, clinical medication review performance and self-assessed competence: Investigating influences. Pharmacy Education. 2007; 7(3): 257-265.

88. Laaksonen R, Duggan C, Bates I. Performance of community pharmacists in providing clinical medication reviews. Ann Pharmacother. 2010; 44(7–8): 1181-1190. doi: https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1M719

89. Lalonde L, Normandeau M, Lamarre D, Lord A, Berbiche D, Corneille L, et al. Evaluation of a training and communication-network nephrology program for community pharmacists. Pharm World Sci. 2008; 30(6): 924-933. doi: 10.1007/s11096-008-9253-0

90. Liekens S, Smits T, Laekeman G, Foulon V. A depression training session with consumer educators to reduce stigmatizing views and improve pharmacists’ depression care attitudes and practices. Am J Pharm Educ. 2013; 77(6): 120. doi: 10.5688/ajpe776120

91. Liekens S, Vandael E, Roter D, Larson S, Smits T, Laekeman G, et al. Impact of training on pharmacists’ counseling of patients starting antidepressant therapy. Patient Educ Couns. 2014; 94(1): 110-115. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
pec.2013.09.023

92. Martin BA, Chewning BA. Evaluating pharmacists’ ability to counsel on tobacco cessation using two standardized patient scenarios. Patient Educ Couns. 2011; 83(3): 319-324. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2010.12.010

93. McConnell KJ, Newlon CL, Delate T. The impact of continuing professional development versus traditional continuing pharmacy education on pharmacy practice. Ann Pharmacother. 2010; 44(10): 1585-1595. doi: https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1P161

94. McConnell KJ, Delate T, Newlon CL. The sustainability of improvements from continuing professional development in pharmacy practice and learning behaviors. Am J Pharm Educ. 2015; 79(3): 36. doi: 10.5688/ajpe79336

95. Melo DO de, Molino CGR da C, Ribeiro E, Romano-Lieber NS. Capacitação e intervenções de técnicos de farmácia na dispensação de medicamentos em Atenção Primária à Saúde. Cien Saude Colet. 2017; 22(1): 261-268. doi:
10.1590/1413-81232017221.1612201

96. Obreli-Neto PR, Guidoni CM, Baldoni AO, Marusic S, Castedalli G, Lahoud YM, et al. Evaluation of theeffectiveness of an Internetbased continuing education program on pharmacybased minor ailment management: a randomized
controlled clinical trial. Brazilian J Pharm Sci. 2016; 52(1): 15-26. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-82502016000100003

97. O’Neal KS, Crosby KM, Miller MJ, Murray KA, Condren ME. Assessing health literacy practices in a community pharmacy environment: experiences using the AHRQ Pharmacy Health Literacy Assessment Tool. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2013; 9(5): 564-596. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.09.005

98. Rouleau R, Beauchesne MF, Laurier C. Impact of a continuing education program on community pharmacists’ interventions and asthma medication use: a pilot study. Ann Pharmacother. 2007; 41(4): 574-580. doi: https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1H606

99. Sadler S, Rodgers S, Howard R, Morris CJ, Avery AJ, PINCER Triallists. Training pharmacists to deliver a complex information technology intervention (PINCER) using the principles of educational outreach and root cause analysis. Int
J Pharm Pract. 2014; 22(1): 47-58. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12032

100. Saw PS, Chuah LH, Lee SWH. A practical approach toward teaching ethics to community pharmacists. Int J Clin Pharm. 2018; 40(5): 1131-1136. doi: 10.1007/s11096-018-0707-8

101. Saylor MS, Blanchette LM, Smith MB, Cambron K, Andricopulos K, Brown MJ. Initiation and preliminary evaluation of an oncology pharmacy training course for staff pharmacists. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2016; 22(4): 611-617. doi: https://
doi.org/10.1177/1078155215599834

102. Schafheutle EI, Smith C, Cutts C, Higginson PJ, Noyce PR. Pharmacy technicians’ views of learning and practice implementation. Int J Pharm Pract. 2012; 20(3): 141-147. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7174.2012.00186.x

103. Sidhu S, Gorman SK, Slavik RS, Ramsey T, Bruchet N, Murray S. Positive and negative impacts of a continuing professional development intervention on pharmacist practice: A balanced measure evaluation. J Contin Educ
Health Prof. 2017; 37(4): 215-222. doi: 10.1097/CEH.0000000000000166

104. Smith SD, Lee A, Blaszczynski A, Fischer G. Pharmacists’ knowledge about use of topical corticosteroids in atopic dermatitis: Pre and post continuing professional development education. Australas J Dermatol. 2016; 57(3): 199-204. doi: 10.1111/ajd.12339detailing administered by pharmacy students. J Pharm Pract. 2015; 28(2): 162-165. doi: https://
doi.org/10.1177/0897190013515711

111. Walters C, Raymont A, Galea S, Wheeler A. Evaluation of online training for the provision of opioid substitution treatment by community pharmacists in New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2012; 31(7): 903-910. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-
3362.2012.00459.x

112. Wheeler A, Fowler J, Hattingh L. Using an intervention mapping framework to develop an online mental health continuing education program for pharmacy staff. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2013; 33(4): 258-266. doi: 10.1002/chp.21198

113. Wilbur K, Shabana S, Maraghi F, ElMubark A, Kheir N. An evaluation of the translation of continuing education into diabetes public health care by pharmacists. Int J Clin Pharm. 2017; 39(4): 774-782. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-017-0477-8

114. Zembles T. An inservice program on pharmacogenetics to individualize drug therapy. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010; 74(1): 10. doi: 10.5688/aj740110

105. Sweet B V, Welage LS, Johnston JP. Effect of a Web-based continuing-education program on pharmacist learning. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009; 66(21): 1902-1903. doi: https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp080658

106. Temple ME, Jakubecz MA, Link NA. Implementation of a training program to improve pharmacy services for high-risk neonatal and maternal populations. Am J Heal Pharm. 2013; 70(2): 144-149. doi: 10.2146/ajhp110681

107. Tofade1 T, Foushee L, Chou S, Caiola SM, Eckel S. Continuing professional development training program among pharmacist preceptors and nonpreceptors. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2010; 50(6): 730-735. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2010.09150

108. Tofade TS, Foushee LL, Chou SY, Eckel SF, Caiola SM. Evaluation of a condensed training program to introduce the process of continuing professional development. J Pharm Pract. 2010; 23(6): 560-569. doi: 10.1177/0897190010375852

109. Trewet CB, Fjortoft N. Evaluation of the impact of a continuing professional development worksheet on sustained learning and implementing change after a continuing pharmacy education activity. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2013; 9(2): 215-221. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.06.002

110. Wahl KR, Woolf BL, Hoch MA, Zillich AJ, Hudmon KS. Promoting pharmacy-based referrals to the tobacco quitline: a pilot study of academic detailing administered by pharmacy students. J Pharm Pract. 2015; 28(2): 162-165. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0897190013515711

111. Walters C, Raymont A, Galea S, Wheeler A. Evaluation of online training for the provision of opioid substitution treatment by community pharmacists in New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2012; 31(7): 903-910. doi: 10.1111/j.1465-
3362.2012.00459.x

112. Wheeler A, Fowler J, Hattingh L. Using an intervention mapping framework to develop an online mental health continuing education program for pharmacy staff. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2013; 33(4): 258-266. doi: 10.1002/chp.21198

113. Wilbur K, Shabana S, Maraghi F, ElMubark A, Kheir N. An evaluation of the translation of continuing education into diabetes public health care by pharmacists. Int J Clin Pharm. 2017; 39(4): 774-782. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-017-0477-8

114. Zembles T. An inservice program on pharmacogenetics to individualize drug therapy. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010; 74(1): 10. doi: 10.5688/aj740110
Publicado
2021-05-07
Sección
Artículo de Revisión

Artículos más leídos por el mismo autor(es)