Efectos de los ácidos grasos oleico (18 : 1n-9) y palmítico (16 : 0) en el estado metabólico del adipocito

Resumen

Introducción: Los niveles elevados de ácidos grasos libres (AGL) en suero inducen resistencia a insulina (RI) o un mecanismo de protección del desarrollo de RI en humanos, esto depende del tipo de AGL. Este estudio explora los efectos de los ácidos grasos oleico (insaturados – OLA) y palmítico (saturados-PAM) sobre la insulina en adipocitos maduros. Métodos: Las células se incubaron 18 h con o sin OLA y PAM a 250 μM y 500 μM. Después del período de cultivo, se evaluó en adipocitos: viabilidad, tamaño, movilización de ácidos grasos, proteínas de señalización de insulina y absorción de glucosa. Resultados: Los adipocitos mostraron viabilidad óptima independientemente de los tipos de ácidos grasos utilizados en el tratamiento. Los adipocitos eran hipertróficos tras estimulo con OLA y PAM. La lipogénesis (síntesis de lípidos) y la lipólisis (degradación de lípidos) aumentaron significativamente con el tratamiento con OLA o PAM (500 μM) en comparación con el control. En los resultados de OLA no se evidenció una reducción significativa en las cascadas de señalización de insulina, a excepción de una respuesta proinflamatoria posterior. En cambio, los adipocitos hipertróficos tratados con PAM presentaron resistencia a la insulina y alteración de los marcadores proinflamatorios y de estrés. Conclusiones: Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que PAM induce resistencia a la insulina, estrés mitocondrial y del retículo en las células grasas en comparación con aquellos tratados con OLA, AGL que, en cambio, protegen a los adipocitos de todas esas alteraciones.

Palabras clave: Adipocito, Ácidos grasos, Ácido oleico, Ácido palmítico, Resistencia a la insulina, Insulina, Lipolisis, Lipogénesis

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Biografía del autor

Alberto Angel–Martin, Universidad Industrial de Santander
   
Gerardo Mantilla–Mora, Universidad Industrial de Santander
   

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Publicado
2021-05-06
Sección
Artículos Científicos