Aspectos clínicos e inmunológicos de la infección por SARS-CoV-2

Resumen

Objetivo: describir los aspectos moleculares y celulares de la respuesta inmune frente a SARS-CoV-2; y las repercusiones clínicas, producto de mecanismos inmunes. Introducción: la aparición de una neumonía atípica en China, en diciembre de 2019, provocó un confinamiento global. El agente responsable de esta enfermedad fue nombrado por el Comité Internacional de Taxonomía de Virus como SARS-CoV-2, y la enfermedad que produce fue denominada COVID-19 por la OMS el 11 de febrero del 2020. Metodología: para este estudio descriptivo se indagó en la base de datos de Pubmed, Science, Nature, The Lancet, The New England Journal of Medicine, medRxiv y Google académico; cuyos descriptores utilizados fueron COVID-19, 2019-nCoV, SARS-CoV-2, linfocitos, anticuerpos e inmunidad; incluyendo en la revisión 128 estudios. Resultados: las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes que produce SARS-CoV-2 son: fiebre, tos seca y fatiga; siendo los individuos ancianos que presentan con mayor frecuencia complicaciones como el síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo, arritmias, fallo cardíaco agudo y shock séptico. Se identificó descensos significativos de las células NK, linfocitos B, linfocitos T CD4+ y CD8+ en sangre periférica en pacientes con cuadros moderados y severos de COVID-19. Discusión: Las células NK y macrófagos se encargan de la contención y eliminación viral en las primeras etapas de la infección por SARS-CoV-2. No está claro la relevancia de la respuesta humoral en la contención, y eliminación de SARS-CoV-2. La respuesta de linfocitos T citotóxicos es esencial para la completa resolución de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, ya que logran la eliminación de las células infectadas. No existe un tratamiento antiviral específico recomendado para COVID-19, y actualmente no existe vacuna disponible.

 

Palabras clave: Inmunidad, Linfocitos, SARS-CoV-2, Coronavirus, COVID-19, Infección, Manifestaciones clínicas, Terapia

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Publicado
2020-07-17
Sección
Artículo de Revisión