Cavitación en perfiles hidrodinámicos para turbinas hidrocinéticas

Resumen

La resistencia a la cavitación es un requerimiento importante en el diseño de turbinas hidrocinéticas para aplicaciones marinas o fluviales dado que se ha demostrado que la cavitación puede contribuir al desgaste, corrosión, vibración y fatiga de los álabes de la turbina. La presencia de cavitación en los álabes puede conducir a la disminución del rendimiento de la turbina y la reducción de su vida útil. Por lo tanto, es fundamental incluir un estudio de cavitación en el análisis y desarrollo de los sistemas hidrocinéticos. En este trabajo, se presentan los elementos a tener en cuenta en un estudio de cavitación de los álabes de las turbinas hidrocinéticas. Como criterio para determinar la ocurrencia de cavitación, se presentó la comparación entre la distribución del coeficiente de presión ( ) sobre el perfil hidrodinámico Eppler 420 y el número de cavitación ( ). El  fue calculado mediante simulación numérica usando el software Ansys Fluent. Los resultados mostraron que el perfil hidrodinámico Eppler 420 podría ser empleado para el diseño de los álabes de turbinas hidrocinéticas.

Palabras clave: cavitación, número de cavitación, inicio de la cavitación, turbina hidrocinética, perfil hidrodinámico, coeficiente de presión, CFD, Eppler 420, modelo de turbulencia k-ω SST, coeficiente de sustentación

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Publicado
2021-01-02